Martin Seligman – Learned Optimism Martin Seligman – Learned Optimism [eBook (epub/mobi/PDF) + Audio (mp3) + Workbook (PDF)] Category: Mindset / Achievement This product can only be requested by members. To get this product, you must be a memberBECOME A MEMBER Description Reviews (0) Description Alan Weiss in The Self-Esteem Workshop () said that Learned Optimism by Martin Seligman is the best book for fixing negative self-talk. Inluded in product: epub, mobi, and PDF (PDF is scanned) mp3 audiobook (64 kbps) PDF workbook The workbook and book audio was originally uploaded here: but my included audio file has a higher bitrate 64 kbps vs . ———- Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life Paperbackby Martin E. P. SeligmanCopyright © 1990, 1998, 2006 by Martin E. P. Seligman http://www.amazon.com/Learned-Optimism-Change-Your-Mind/dp/1…Paperback: 319 pagesPublisher: Vintage; Reprint edition (January 3, 2006)Language: EnglishISBN-10: 1400078393ISBN-13: 978-1400078394 Known as the father of the new science of positive psychology, Martin E.P. Seligman draws on more than twenty years of clinical research to demonstrate how optimism enchances the quality of life, and how anyone can learn to practice it. Offering many simple techniques, Dr. Seligman explains how to break an “I—give-up” habit, develop a more constructive explanatory style for interpreting your behavior, and experience the benefits of a more positive interior dialogue. These skills can help break up depression, boost your immune system, better develop your potential, and make you happier.. With generous additional advice on how to encourage optimistic behavior at school, at work and in children, Learned Optimism is both profound and practical–and valuable for every phase of life. ———- The following summary is from pages 264 to 269 ofTom Butler-Bowdon – 50 Self Help Classics https://ThePlace.click/details.php?id=2419 Learned Optimism1991 Quote: “The traditional view of achievement, like the traditional view ofdepression, needs overhauling. Our workplaces and our schools operateon the conventional assumption that success results from a combinationof talent and desire. When failure occurs, it is because eithertalent or desire is missing. But failure can also occur when talent anddesire are present in abundance but optimism is missing.” Quote: “The commonness of being knocked flat by troubles, however, doesnot mean it is acceptable or that life has to be this way. If you use a differentexplanatory style, you’ll be better equipped to cope with troubledtimes and keep them from propelling you towards depression.” Quote: “What we want is not blind optimism but flexible optimism—optimismwith its eyes open. We must be able to use pessimism’s keen sense ofreality when we need it, but without having to dwell in its darkshadows.” In a nutshellCultivation of an optimistic mindset significantly increases yourchances of health, wealth, and happiness. In a similar veinDavid D. Burns, Feeling Good (p62)Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow (p102)Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence (p154) CHAPTER 46Martin Seligman Martin Seligman is a cognitive psychologist who spent manyyears clinically testing the idea of “learned helplessness.” Hisexperiments giving mild electric shocks to dogs proved thatdogs would give up trying to escape if they believed that, whatever theydid, the shocks would keep coming. Another researcher tested the principleon people, using noise instead of shocks, and found that learnedhelplessness can be engineered in human minds just as easily. Yet theexperiments contained an anomaly: As with the dog experiments, onein every three human subjects would not “give up,” they kept trying topress buttons on a panel in an attempt to shut off the noise. Whatmade these subjects different from the others?Seligman applied the question to real life: What makes someone pickthemselves up after rejection by a lover, or another keep going whentheir life’s work comes to nothing? He found that the ability of somepeople to bounce back from apparent defeat is not, as we sentimentallylike to say, a “triumph of the human will.” Rather than having aninborn trait of greatness, such people have developed a way of explainingevents that does not see defeat as permanent or affecting their basicvalues. Nor is this trait something that “we either have or we don’t”—optimism involves a set of skills that can be learned. Positive explanatory stylePessimistic people tend to think that misfortune is their fault. The causeof their specific misfortune or general misery is, they believe, permanent—stupidity, lack of talent, ugliness—therefore they do not botherto change it. Few of us are wholly pessimistic, but most of us will havegiven pessimism free reign in reaction to particular past events. In psychologytextbooks, such reactions are considered “normal.” But Seligmansays that it does not have to be this way, that a different way ofexplaining setbacks to yourself (“explanatory style”) will protect you from letting crises cast you into depression. If you have even an averagelevel of pessimism, Seligman says, it will drag down your success inevery arena of life: work, relationships, health.The author undertook groundbreaking work for life insurance companyMetLife. Life insurance is considered one of the most difficult ofall sales jobs, a real spirit crusher. The company was spending millionsof dollars a year training its agents, only to see most of them move on.Instead of the usual criteria by which MetLife hired (career backgroundand so on), Seligman suggested that applicants be hired if theytested well for optimism and explanatory style. The result: Agentshired on this basis did 20 percent better than the regular recruits inthe first year, and 57 percent better in the second. They clearly hadbetter ways to deal with the nine out of ten rejections that wouldmake the others give up. Optimism and successConventional thinking is that success creates optimism, but the evidencelaid out by Seligman shows the reverse to be true. On a repeatbasis optimism tends to deliver success, as the experience of the lifeinsurance agents demonstrated. At the exact same point that a pessimistwill wilt, an optimist perseveres and breaks through an invisiblebarrier.Not getting through this barrier is often misinterpreted as laziness orlack of talent. Seligman found that people who give up easily never disputetheir own interpretation of failure or disparagement. Those whoregularly “vault the wall” listen to their internal dialog and argueagainst their own limiting thoughts, quickly finding positive reasons forrejection. The value of pessimismYet Learned Optimism admits that there is one area in which pessimistsexcel: their ability to see a situation more accurately. Some professions(financial control and accounting or safety engineering, forexample) and all firms could do with a few bring-us-down-to-earth pessimists.In Business @ the Speed of Thought (1999) Bill Gates discussesthis very trait, lauding the Microsoft employees who can tell him whatis going wrong and do so quickly.Nevertheless, let’s not forget that Gates is also a dreamer par excellence,who at a very young age imagined a world in which every homeand office would be using his Windows software. Seligman is clear onthe point that success in work and life results when we can both perceivepresent reality accurately and visualize a compelling future. Manypeople are good at one and not the other. Someone who wishes to learnoptimism must keep the former skill, while becoming a better dreamer.The combination is unbeatable. Most depression results from thinking badlyIt is slightly ironic that Learned Optimism draws much of its data fromstudies of depression. Before cognitive therapy, depression was alwaysthought of being either “anger turned in upon itself” (Freud) or achemical malfunction in the brain. However, pioneering cognitiveresearchers Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck (see Feeling Good) set out toprove that negative thoughts are not a symptom of depression, theycause it. Most of us know this at a common-sense level, butpsychotherapy allows us to believe that we are dealing with somethingbeyond our control.Seligman is a leading authority on sex differences in depression. Hesays that women are twice as likely to suffer from it because, althoughmen and women experience mild depression at the same rate, howwomen think about problems tends to amplify them. Rumination on aproblem, always connecting it back to some “unchangeable” aspect ofourselves, is a recipe for the blues. Millions of dollars have been spentby America’s National Institute of Mental Health to test this idea thatdepression (i.e., the standard variety, not bipolar or manic) results fromhabits of thought. Seligman tells us the results in two words: “It does.”Moreover, developing the mental muscles of optimism significantlyreduces the likelihood that we will become depressed. Habitual optimismThis brings us to a bigger question: Why is there so much depressionaround? Seligman argues that our recent preoccupation with individualismcreates its own form of mental shackles. If we are invited tobelieve in our own endless possibilities, any form of failure becomesdevastating. Combine this with the crumbling of previously solidpsychological supports—the nation, God, the extended family—and wehave an epidemic of depression.However, while drugs like Prozac can be effective in eliminating it,there is a gap between successfully treated depression and habitualoptimism. With the positive explanatory style that Seligman recommendsproblems are seen as temporary, specific, and external, ratherthan inevitable expressions of our failure as a person. Cognitive therapychanges the basic way a person sees the world and that altered perceptiontends to be permanent. Final commentsLearned Optimism is a product of the sea change that occurred in psychologyin the mid-1960s. Until then, a person’s behavior was consideredto be either “pushed” by internal urges (Freudianism) or “pulled”by the rewards or punishments that society provided (behaviorism).Cognitive therapy, in contrast, showed that people could actuallychange the way they think, in spite of unconscious leanings or societalconditioning. As Seligman notes toward the end of the book, theupheavals of the modern era, such as mass migration, made rapid personalchange necessary; now it is desirable. Yet we are a culture of selfimproversbecause we know self-improvement is possible—not justexperience but psychological science proves it.Learned Optimism is an important work within the self-help fieldbecause it provides a scientific foundation for many claims. It became abestseller because it attracted readers who normally would considerpersonal development ideas as, to use the author’s phrase, “metaphysicalboosterism.” The book is therefore not simply about optimism(though it may well turn you into an optimist) but about the validity ofpersonal change itself and the dynamic nature of the human condition.Seligman’s latest work, Authentic Happiness, incorporates many of thefindings and ideas of Learned Optimism but takes the idea of “positivepsychology” further. It is highly recommended. Martin SeligmanSeligman was raised in Albany, New York. As an undergraduate hemajored in modern philosophy at Princeton, then psychology. Licensedas a psychologist in Pennsylvania in 1973, for 14 years he directed theclinical training program of the University of Pennsylvania psychologydepartment.Seligman’s bibliography includes 14 books and 140 articles. Apartfrom Learned Optimism, his other most popular works are What YouCan Change… and What You Can’t (1994) and The Optimistic Child(with Reivich, Jaycox, & Gillham, 1995). More scholarly works includeHelplessness (1975) and Abnormal Psychology (1982).He is a former President of the American Psychological Association,from which he has received two awards for Distinguished ScientificContribution. He is currently Kogod Professor of Psychology at theUniversity of Pennsylvania and is at the forefront of the “positivepsychology” movement. Reviews There are no reviews yet. Be the first to review “Martin Seligman – Learned Optimism” Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a review.